Jul 05 2004

Miscellaneous Shopping Vocabulary

artículos de cuero – articles made of leather

carteras – wallets

bolsa – purse

una joyería – a jewelry store

joyas – jewelry

una pulsera – a bracelet

un anillo – a ring

aretes – earrings

de plata – silver

de oro – gold

algo de comer – something to eat

un restaurante – a restaurant

una tienda de ropa – a clothing store

en oferta – on sale

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Jul 04 2004

Haggling with Shopkeepers in Border Towns or Caribbean Tourist Traps

¿Puede ayudarme? – Can you help me?

¿Cuánto cuesta esto/eso? – How much does this/that cost?

Es demasiado. – That’s too much.

¿Por cuánto me lo deja? – How much will you give it to me for? (lit. For how much will you leave it to me?)

¿Tiene más? – Do you have more?

Le doy… – I’ll give you…

Me lo llevo. – I’ll take it.

Me los llevo. – I’ll take them.

Yo sólo tengo… – I only have….

Sólo tengo dólares. – I only have dollars.

Yo sólo quiero gastar… – I only want to spend…

Está caro. – It’s expensive.

Está barato. – It’s cheap.

Es demasiado. – It’s too much.

Estoy buscando… – I’m looking for…

¿Puedo probarlos? – Can I try them on?

Estos son muy apretados. – These are too tight.

Estos me quedan bien. – These fit well.

No, gracias. Sólo estoy mirando. – No thanks. I’m just looking.

Me gusta/gustan. – I like it/them.

¿Me lo puede envolver? – Can you wrap it for me?

¿Me puede dar una bolsa? – Can you give me a bag?

Me parece muy delicado/frágil. – It looks too fragile.

¿De dónde viene esto? – Where is this from?

¿Tiene cambio? – Do you have change?

¿Dónde puedo cambiar dólares? – Where can I change dollars?

¿Puedo pagar con dólares? – Can I pay with dollars?

Sólo tengo dólares. – I only have dollars.

¿Dónde está la tienda/el centro/el mercado? – Where is the store/central/market?

Quiero comprar (algo)… – I want to buy (something)…

¿Tiene usted (algo)…? – Do you have (something)…?

Necesito comprar… – I need to buy…

¿Dónde puedo comprar…? – Where can I buy…?

¿Puedo ver (algo)…? – Can I see (something)…?

diferente – different
más barato/caro – cheaper/more expensive
mejor calidad – better quality
más grande – bigger (lit. more big)
más pequeño – smaller (lit. more small)

¿Qué es esto? – What is this?

¿Es gratis? – Is it free?

¿Cuánto cuesta? – How much does it cost?

¡Ay, cuesta mucho! – Ouch, it costs too much!

No tengo dinero (suficiente), amigo. – I don’t have (enough) money, friend.

¿Es su mejor precio? – Is it your best price?

¿Tal vez un poco más barato? – Perhaps a little cheaper?

¡Qué ladrón! – What a thief! (A bit strong, but may be warranted on some occasions.)

¿Acepta tarjetas de crédito? – Do you accept credit cards? (Or, you can just say credit card added to the Spanish for “accept”)

Quisiera comprar un regalo/regalito. – I would like to buy a gift/small gift.

Quisiera comprar un recuerdo/una memoria. – I would like to buy a souvenir

¿Tiene Ud….? – Do you have…?

joyas – jewelry
loza – pottery
objetos de cuero – leather goods
perfumes – perfumes
objetos de madera – wooden objects (carvings)

¿Vende Ud….? – Do you sell…?

discos compactos – compact discs
música tradicional – traditional music
Salsa/Merengue – Salsa/Merengue
rock en Español – Spanish rock and roll

Gracias por todo. – Thanks for everything.

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Jul 03 2004

Colloquialisms

chamo(a) or chamaco(a) – little boy/girl

chulo(a) – dude/chick or cutie

chismes – gossip

calabazas – pregnant (lit. pumpkins)

borracho – drunk

¡Ay, caramba!/¡caray! – Good heavens!

¡Estás loco(a)! – You’re crazy!

chavo – dude

chévere – cool (used mainly in Puerto Rico and Spain)

padre – cool (used mainly in Mexico)

¿Qué onda? – What’s up?

andale – go on

¡Vete! – Get lost!

¡Cállate! – Shut up!

¡Cálmate! – Relax! (lit. calm down)

¡Tómalo con calma! – Take it easy!

estúpido(a) – stupid

¡Qué bueno! – Awesome!

¡Qué lástima! – What a shame!

¡Qué lata! – What a drag!

¡Qué suerte! – What luck!

¡Qué sorpresa! – What a surprise!

¡Qué loco! – How crazy!

codo or tacaño(a) – cheapskate

gringo(a) – foreigner

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Jul 02 2004

Useful Phrases for Socializing

¿De dónde es Ud.? – Where are you from?

¿Cuántos años tiene Ud.? – How old are you?

Un menu por favor. – A menu please.

Una bebida, por favor. – A drink, please.

¡Salud! – Cheers!/To your health!

¿Cuál es su _____ favorito(a)? – What is your favorite _____?

¿Te gusta…? – Do you like (to)…?

¿Cúal es su preferencia? – What is your preference?

¿Cuál es su número de teléfono? – What is your telephone number?

¿Cuál es su dirección? – What is your address?

¿Eres casado(a)? – Are you married?

¿Cuántos niños tienes? – How many children have you?

en punto – on the dot (Not a very strict Mexican or Latin American concept.)

ahora (ahorita) – now (right now)

en efecto – in fact (actually)

de veras – really, honestly

mi amor/cariño – my love/dear

un brazo/beso – a hug/kiss

claro/por supuesto – of course!

por cierto/seguro – for certain/for sure

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Jul 01 2004

Vocabulary Words

Numbers (Números)

1 – 20: uno, dos, tres, cuatro, cinco, seis, siete, ocho, nueve, diez, once, doce, trece, catorce, quince, diez y seis, diez y siete, diez y ocho, diez y nueve, veinte.

20-199: veinte y dos is 22. treinta is 30, treinta y tres is 33, cuarenta is 40, cuarenta y cuatro is 44, cincuenta is 50, cincuenta y cinco is 55, sesenta is 60, sesenta y seis is 66, setenta is 70, setenta y siete is 77, ochenta is 80, ochenta y ocho is 88, noventa is 90, noventa y nueve is 99. cien is 100, ciento uno is 101 and ciento noventa y nueve is 199.

Time (La Hora)

The time (la hora) is expressed by es la una for 1:00, son las dos for 2:00, es las una y diez for 1:10, son las dos y diez for 2:10. Y cuarto means a quarter after, e.g., Son las tres y cuarto. (It’s 3:15.) Y media means half past, e.g., Son las cuatro y media. (It’s 4:30.) Hora is hour. ¿Qúe hora es? – What time is it?

Colors (Colores)

Colors (colores) include: rojo (red), azul (blue), blanco (white), negro (black), rosado (pink), amarillo (yellow), anaranjado (orange), verde (green), café/marrón (brown), gris (gray), and violeta/morado (purple). Claro is light, oscuro is dark.

Seasons (Las Estaciones)

Seasons (las estaciones) are: la primavera, el verano, el otoño and el invierno.

Months (Los Meses)

enero, febrero, marzo, abril, mayo, junio, julio, agosto, septiembre, octubre, noviembre and diciembre.

Days (Los Días)

domingo, lunes, martes, miércoles, jueves, viernes, and sábado. Año is year and calendario is calendar. Semana is week and fin de semana is weekend. Vacaciones is vacation and día feriado is holiday.

Body Parts (Cuerpo)

cabeza (head), cara (face), boca (mouth), ojos (eyes), oídos (ears), nariz (nose), cuello (neck),
pecho (chest), corazón (heart), estómago (stomach), brazos (arms), manos (hands), dedos (fingers/toes), piernas (legs) and pies (feet)

Clothes (Ropa)

camisa (shirt), playera (T-shirt), blusa (blouse), corbata (tie), vestido (dress), falda (skirt), pantalones (pants), calcetines (socks), traje (suit), suéter (sweater), botas (boots) and zapatos (shoes).

Animals (Animales)

perro (dog), gato (cat), vaca (cow), caballo (horse), ave/pájaro (bird), gallina (chicken), pez (fish), loro (parrot), lagarto (lizard), león (lion), tigre (tiger), mono (monkey), elefante (elefant), oso (bear), ballena (whale) and delfín (dolphin).

Food & Drink (Comida y Bebida)

carne (meat), vegetales (vegetables), cerveza (beer), coca (coke), agua mineral (mineral water), chocolate (chocolate), coco (coconut), postre (dessert), pan (bread), leche (milk), queso (cheese), frijoles (beans), lechuga (lettuce), tomates (tomates), salsa (sauce), salsa de tomate (ketchup), huevos (eggs) and dulces (sweets).

Tableware (Vajilla)

plato (plate), vaso (cup/glass), copa (wine glass), tenedor (fork), cuchillo (knife), cuchara (spoon), cuenco ( bowl), servilleta (napkin), estufa (stove), and cazuela (pot).

Entertainment (Entretenimiento) and Recreation (Recreación)

cine (cinema) teatro (theater), camping (camping), hotel (hotel), barco (boat), fiesta (party), turista (tourist), viaje (trip), aventura (adventure), avión/aeroplano (airplane), aeropuerto (airport), opera (opera), museo (museum), música (music), discoteca (discoteque), deportes (sports), jogging (footing), béisbol (baseball), fútbol (soccer) fútbol americano (football), boxeo (boxing), and juego (game).

Family (Familia)

padre (father), madre (mother), hermano(a) (brother/sister), hijo(a) (son/daughter), tío(a) (uncle/aunt), primo(a) (cousin masc./fem.), sobrino(a) (nephew/niece), abuelo(a) (grandfather/grandmother), nieto(a) (grandson/granddaughter), esposo(a) (husband/wife), novio(a) (boyfriend/girlfriend), cariño (honey/dear), divorciado(a) (divorced masc./fem.), viudo(a) (widower/widow), and suegro(a) (father-in-law/mother-in-law).

Jobs (Oficios) and Professions (Profesiones)

el médico (doctor), el abogado (lawyer), el estudiante (student), el maestro (teacher), consultor (consultant), trabajador/obrero (worker/laborer), contratista (contractor), jefe (boss), construcción (construction), carpintero (carpenter), secretario(a) (secretary masc./fem.), recepcionista (receptionist), asistente (assistant), operador(a) (operator masc./fem.), conductor/chofer (driver), hombre/mujer de negocios (businessman/businesswoman), agente (agent), vendedor(a) (salesman/saleswoman) policía (police), bombero (fireman), enfermero(a) (nurse masc./fem.), político (politician) and programador de computadoras (computer programmer).

Stores (Tiendas)

dinero (money), cajero(a) (cashier), mercado (market), supermercado (supermarket), almacén (department store), cheque (check), tarjeta de crédito (credit card), recibo (receipt) and departamento (department).

Misc. Nouns

cosa (thing), carro (car), camino (road), calle (street), mundo (world), tierra (earth), ciudad (city), puente (bridge), sitio (place or site), gente (people), persona (person) and población (population).

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Jun 30 2004

Past & Future Tenses

The past and future tenses of verbs in Spanish include the preterit, imperfect, regular future and conditional. These tenses are far too complex to describe within a lesson plan for basic level conversation. For beginning level conversational students it is permissible to simply stress that one is speaking of the future or past while using the present conjugation of the verb.

For the Past one can simply use the phrase, En el pasado – In the past. An example would be:

Yo hablo con ella, en el pasado – I speak with her, in the past.

You could clarify the statement by using:

Ayer – Yesterday
Antes – Before

Hace un minuto… – One minute ago…
Hace dos horas… – Two Hours ago…
Hace tres días… – Three days ago…
Hace cuatro meses… – Four months ago…
Hace cinco años… – Five years ago…

For example: Yo hablo con ella, hace cinco minutos. –I speak with her, five minutes ago.

For the future tense one can use, en el futuro.

For example: Yo hablo con ella, en el futuro.– I speak with her, in the future.

You can clarify it by adding:

mañana – tomorrow
la próxima semana – next week
despúes – afterwards
más tarde – later on

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Jun 29 2004

Key Verbs and their Conjugations

querer – to want

yo quiero – I want
tú quieres – you want
Ud. quiere – you (form.) want
él/ella quiere – he/she/it wants
nosotros queremos – we want
vosotros quereis – you (fam. pl.) want
Uds. quieren – you (form. pl.) want
ellos/ellas quieren – they (masc./fem.) want

tener – to have

yo tengo – I have
tú tienes – you have
Ud. tiene – you (form.) are
él/ella tiene – he/she/it have
nosotros tenemos – we have
vosotros teneis – you (fam. pl.) have
Uds. tienen – you (form. pl.) have
ellos/ellas tienen – they (masc./fem.) have

venir – to come

yo vengo – I come
tú vienes – you come
Ud. viene – you (form.) come
él/ella viene – he/she/it comes
nosotros venimos – we come
vosotros venís – you (fam. pl.) come
Uds. vienen – you (form. pl.) come
ellos/ellas vienen – they (masc. /fem.) come

ir – to go

yo voy – I go
tú vas – you go
Ud. va – you (form.) go
él/ella va – he/she/it goes
nosotros vamos – we go
vosotros vais – you (fam. pl.) go
Uds. van – you (form. pl.) go
ellos/ellas van – they (masc./fem.) go

conocer – to be familiar with or to know

yo conozco – I know
tú conoces – you know
Ud. conoce – you (form.) know
él/ella conoce – he/she/it knows
nosotros conocemos – we know
vosotros conoceis – you (fam. pl.) know
Uds. conocen – you (form. pl.) know
ellos/ellas conocen – they (masc./fem.) know

saber – to know

yo sé – I know
tú sabes – you know
Ud. sabe – you (form.) know
él/ella sabe – he/she/it knows
nosotros sabemos – we know
vosotros sabeis – you (fam. pl.) know
Uds. saben – you (form. pl.) know
ellos/ella saben – they (masc./fem.) know

poder – to be able to

yo puedo – I can
tú puedes – you can
Ud. puede – you (form.) can
él/ella puede – he/she/it can
nosotros podemos – we can
vosotros podeis – you (fam. pl.) can
Uds. pueden – you (form. pl.) can
ellos/ellas pueden – they (masc./fem.) can

decir – to say

yo digo – I say
tú dices – you say
Ud. dice – you (form.) say
él/ella dice – he/she/it says
nosotros decimos – we say
vosotros decís – you (fam. pl.) say
Uds. dicen – you (form. pl.) say
ellos/ellas dicen – they (masc./fem.) say

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Jun 28 2004

Ser vs. Estar

There are two ways to say “is” or “are” in Spanish. The conjugations of ser and estar are used, e.g. es and está.

In very general terms ser is used in Spanish to denote personal traits of persons or things or things which are long-standing or permanent.

ser – to be

yo soy – I am
tú eres – you are
Ud. es – you (form.) are
el/ella es – he/she/it is
nosotros somos – we are
vosotros sois – you (fam. pl.) are
Uds. son – you (form. pl.) are
ellos/ellas son – they (masc./fem.)

Estar is used for feelings, moods, locations and non-lasting situations, and completed actions.

estar – to be

yo estoy – I am
tú estás – you are
Ud. está – you (form.) are
el/ella está– he/she/it is
nosotros estamos – we are
vosotros estáis– you (fam. pl.) are
Uds. están – you (form. pl.) are
ellos/ellas están– they (masc./fem.) are

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Jun 27 2004

Regular & Irregular

The Infinitive is the unconjugated verb which will be found in the dictionary. In Spanish, the infinitive includes the meaning “to”. Thus hablar means “to speak.” All Spanish infinitives end in ‘ar’, ‘er’, or ‘ir’.

When conjugating verbs, remove the infinitive ending and add the appropriate singular or plural ending.

hablar –to speak

yo hablo – I speak
tú hablas – you speak
Ud. habla – you (form.) speak
el/ella habla — he/she/it speaks
nosotros hablamos – we speak
vosotros habláis – you (fam. pl.) speak
Uds. hablan – you (form. pl.) speak
ellos/ellas hablan – they (masc./fem) speak

comer – to eat

yo como – I eat
tú comes – you eat
Ud. come – you (form.) eat
el/ella come – he/she/it eats
nosotros comemos – we eat
vosotros coméis – you (fam. pl.) eat
Uds. comen – you (form. pl.) eat
ellos/ellas comen – they (masc./fem.) eat

vivir – to live

yo vivo – I live
tú vives – you live
Ud. vive – you (form.) live
el/ella vive – he/she/it lives
nosotros vivimos – we live
vosotros vivís – you (fam. pl.) live

Uds. viven – you (form. pl.) live
ellos/ellas viven – they (masc./fem.) live.

There are many irregular verbs in Spanish which are not conjugated nearly as easily as those above. However, it is often the case that the irregularity consists in a stem change, not a change of ending. Thus, many irregular verbs have regular endings. For example: poner (to put) conjugates pongo (I put), conseguir (to get) conjugates consigo (I get), and, the most widely used, tener (to have) tengo (I have).

In cases where the proper conjugation is not known it is permissible, particularly for basic level panish speakers, to use the infinitive of the verb. For example: Yo conseguir la pelota. (I to get the ball.) Or Yo poner los platos en la mesa. (I to put the plates on the table.) Though, for the most commonly used irregular verbs such as tener (to have), ir (to go), venir (to come), poder (to be able to), and saber (to know), it is definitely best to try to memorize the conjugation.

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Jun 26 2004

Pronouns

Personal Pronouns

yo – I
– you (informal)
usted (Ud.) – you (formal)
el/ella – he/she
nosotros – we
vosotros – you all (Informal, used in Spain and Argentina)
ustedes (Uds.) – you all (formal)
ellos/ellas – they (masc./fem.)

Demonstrative Pronouns

èste or èsta – this or his one (near the speaker)

ese or esa – that or that one (near the listener)

aquel or aquella – that or that one (near neither the speaker nor the listener, but far removed from both)

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